Byblos, Lebanon

Joseph G. Jabbra Library & Riad Nassar Central Administration

The new Byblos Library is a state of the art facility. Atelier Pagnamenta Torriani (PT) researched the history, local culture, and typology of the ancient city of Byblos and weaved the findings in the project's design. A pattern based on the ancient Phoenician alphabet highlights Byblos' cultural heritage. Atelier (PT) incorporated passive design features derived from the local typology into the design, achieving a LEED Gold rating. The building houses different forms of modern-day advancements that have a profound effect on the functions and design of the library. A five-story building that includes archive space, open-space study areas, group study rooms, multi-purpose rooms, a meeting room, lounges, administrative offices, and related library services. The library offers an inspiring atmosphere where the old Byblos library has been transformed into a modern facility to foster a collaborative environment.

Description

The Library received USGBC’s LEED Gold certification and the Central Administration is aiming for it. The project features a high-performance envelope, energy recovery and renewable energy, low consumption fixtures, smart irrigation, and rainwater harvesting and re-use. It has a state of the art solar tracking system for curtain management, maximizing daylighting, and reducing heat. It enjoys a high indoor environmental quality, is built using sustainable materials, and benefits from LAU’s recycling initiative in place. The building envelope plays an essential role to reduce the energy consumption of the building. The glazing adopted for the building’s envelope has a very good U-value and shading coefficient as compared to those of ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Baseline for Climate Zone 3A. The external shading devices consist mainly of a perforated metal skin with around a 50% Perforation ratio. This double-skin system is located on the different facades of the buildings and plays a crucial role in lowering the overall shading coefficient of the nearly 100% glazed façade from 0.67 to around an average of 0.35 on the south, south-east and south-west facades. Hence, this double skin will effectively lower the solar radiation reaching the glazed facades and hence reduce effectively the solar gain in the different related spaces. Nevertheless, a good penetration level of daylight is preserved for overall better occupant comfort. The project benefits from high performance district cooling and heating systems. The district cooling chillers have a COP of 5.85 & IPLV of 6.499, whereas the boiler’s efficiency is around 85%, thanks to the automatic online oxygen residual control system. These performance levels help reduce the amount of heat and cooling gains generated by a 72% window-to-wall ratio. Demand controlled ventilation is implemented in all spaces with high occupant density such as classrooms, open spaces, and conference rooms. By monitoring the CO2 concentration levels through sensors, the ventilation rate is dynamically re-set, reducing outdoor air intake rates when zones are not occupied at their design occupancy. The adoption of Variable Air Flow ECDC Fan Coil units has helped gain energy savings by taking the part-load performance route whenever the internal and solar heat gains are not at their peak. The airflow is modeled to fluctuate between 40 and 100%. The Dedicated Fresh Air Handling units serving the FCUs of the project have been equipped with Heat Recovery Enthalpy wheels that are promoting savings through the strategy of energy reuse. Daylight harvesting is maximized. Daylight/occupancy sensors play a crucial role in lowering the energy consumption of already high efficient LED lighting fixtures, benefiting in particular from the high amount of daylight penetrating through the glazed facades. Given the convenient climatic conditions of Byblos-Lebanon and the high solar irradiation levels most of the year, PV panels meet a portion of the building power needs, with room for expansion, and a solar thermal system is implemented as well covering the full need of domestic hot water. The building also scores high on water conservation as it achieves 35% reduction of LEED baseline through low consumption fixtures; smart irrigation using EvapoTranspiration control; as well as rainwater harvesting, condensate drain collection, and re-use. LAU’s Facilities Management continues its commitment to developing sustainable buildings that reduce resource consumption while protecting the environment and providing a high indoor environmental quality. Riyad Nassar Central Administration building was inaugurated on 30th September 2019, in heartfelt recognition of President Emeritus Riyad F. Nassar’s LAU legacy and contribution to the Blat and Byblos communities.

Project info

Construction phase
New construction
Building type
Non-residential building
Detailed building type
Education
Net floor area
8485 m2
Land plot size
4300 m2
Stories
5 stories
Construction type
Concrete
Original construction year of the building
2018
Project contact
Shaheen Bou Jawdeh
Contact email address
sbjaoude@lau.edu.lb

Project team

Developer(s)/owner(s)
Lebanese American University
Architect(s)
Atelier Pagnamenta Torriani – Architects Planners LLP (as concept designers) and Rafik El Khoury & Partners (as Local Architect)
Construction contractor(s)
Natcon Engineering & Contracting
Energy efficiency consultant(s)
Rafik El Khoury & Partners
HVAC consultant(s)
Rafik El Khoury & Partners
Building services
Rafik El Khoury & Partners
Other project team partners
AJB Commissioning; Bureau Veritas; DG Jones & Partners

Building Rating and Certifications systems

Rating and certifications systems
LEED

Building Envelope

External walls

Description of construction
Concrete wall with mechanical stone cladding
U-Value
0.445 W/(m²*K)

Roof

Roof type
Single Pitch Roof
Description of construction
The roof is covered with high SRI materials that greatly reduces the solar heat gain
U-Value
0.222 W/(m²*K)

Openings and windows

Glazing type
Double glazed
Frame material / description
Metal structure with aluminum perforated second skin
Overall u-value window
1.3 W/(m²*K)
Description of construction
Glazed aluminum Curtain walls, Guardian ClimaGuard Premium 2T

Basement floor

Description of construction
Slab on grade
U-Value
0.939 W/(m²*K)

Technical Building Systems

Ventilation system

Type of ventilation
Mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery
Description
The dedicated fresh air handling units serving the FCUs of the project have been equipped with Heat Recovery Enthalpy wheels that reuse energy.
Manufacturer(s) / products
Trane

Space cooling system

Primary space cooling system
Description
Chilled water supplied from a high efficiency campus district cooling plant. Water cooled chillers with COP=5.85 & IPLV=6.499
Manufacturer(s) / products
Daikin
Secondary space cooling system
Centralised chiller │Usually a central system located in the basement
Description
Chilled water is supplied via a building heat exchanger and variable speed secondary pumps. Air handling units located in mechanical room are used for cooling and heating of all common areas in the buildings. Each air handling unit is controlled through VFD, and serves one floor. Supply air flow is controlled through variable air volume boxes installed in each zone, modulating their supply as rooms reach their set point temperature. Fan coil units are located mostly in library and Central Administration offices. Fan coil are brushless with EC DC motors and variable speeds.
Manufacturer(s) / products
Lowara Pumps; Trane AHUs, Climaveneta Fan coils, Schmidt heat exchanger

Space heating system

Primary Space heating system
District heating
Description
High efficiency boilers equipped with oxygen trim control, reaching an efficiency of around 85%
Manufacturer(s) / products
Supreme
Secondary Space heating system
District heating
Description
Heating water is supplied via a building heat exchanger and variable speed secondary pumps. Air handling units located in the mechanical room are used for cooling and heating all common areas in the buildings. Each air handling unit is controlled through VFD, and serves one floor. Supply air flow is controlled through variable air volume boxes installed in each zone, modulating their supply as rooms reach their set point temperature. Fan coil units are located mostly in library and Central Administration offices. Fan coil are brushless with EC DC motors and variable speeds.
Manufacturer(s) / products
Lowara Pumps; Trane AHUs, Climaveneta Fan coils, Schmidt heat exchanger

Water heater system

Primary water heater system
Solar Thermal collector on the roof
Description
8 Solar Thermal panels generating a total thermal energy of 8 kW covering hence the need of domestic hot water.
Manufacturer(s) / products
DEPLASO / Spain
Secondary water heater system
Combi system (system provides space heat & hot water)
Description
The central district heating is used as backup when the solar energy is not sufficient
Manufacturer(s) / products
Supreme / Boilers

Lighting system

Primary lighting system
LED (Light emitting diode lamps)
Description
predominantly High performance LED lighting
Manufacturer(s) / products
Philips, BPM, Domino Led, Proled, Bel Lighting, Egoluce, Luce Light, Led Italy

Shading devices

Type of shading system installed
Automatic shading systems usually with daylight sensor and motor (e.g. rafstores, sunblinds, jalousies, canvas blinds)
Description
State of the art solar tracking system which follows the position of the sun to position the curtains. It is equipped with external radiometers to allow for transient shading from clouds. The system allows 10 positions for the curtains, allowing the desired level of sun penetration into each space, with the possibility of manual override..
Manufacturer(s) / products
Mechoshade

Photovoltaics

Capacity
25 kWp
Total module area
143.16 m²
Description
25kWp Photovoltaics System composed of: - 88 Polycrystalline PV modules (EXIOM) 285Wp - On-Grid Inverter (SMA Sunny Tripower 25000TL) 25kW - Mounting Structure for the PV panels - Circuit Breaker 50A/4p in IP65 enclosure - with suitable protection devices and earthing connections
Manufacturer(s) / products
EXIOM/ Spain

Other technical building systems

Description
Low flow and sensor operated plumbing fixtures, rain water harvesting, condensate drain collection, high efficient irrigation with EvapoTranspiration control

Final Energy Demand

Energy carrier (1)
Electricity
Energy carrier (2)
Other
Annual heating demand
13 kWh/(m²*a)
Annual cooling demand
58 kWh/(m²*a)
Annual lighting demand
17 kWh/(m²*a)
Annual hot water demand
10.5 kWh/(m²*a)
Total final energy demand
131 kWh/(m²*a)

Financial Aspects

Project construction cost
18704000 EUR
Estimated costs of energy efficiency and renewable energy measures
280000 EUR
Certification costs
100500 EUR
Financing sources
Own + subsidized loan